Praxis Part Two

The Plan has come Together

Although the inability to have a diner party was not ideal the next step was to deliver the food to my friends and collect donations to send to my choice organization, which is, Heart-Head-Hands ( They are an online organization that does, blogging, research writing, e-courses, workshops, coaching, consulting, and speaking focused on “everyday living for justice”.

One of the focuses of the organization is ecofeminism and vegan eating which supports my cause. One of their many feminist goals is, “Connecting this personal question of why vegan? With the political work of ecofeminism and movements for social, racial, gender, economic, and environmental justice” (Godbee). Organizer Beth Godbee is an educator, former professor, researcher, feminist and vegan herself. In her blog she writes about her ongoing efforts, struggles, and attitude toward maintaining living everyday for justice. After some research I felt this organization had a cause I wanted to support. I was so compelled to learn more about Beth being a vegan because I made the choice to try eating vegan myself, that I read her blog and found encouraging entries such as “Why I’m Vegan: Doing Something Small and Sustained” that reminded me why I was doing this is the first place.

In ecofeminist thought choosing to be vegan or even a vegetarian “marks a daily bodily commitment to resist ideological pressures to conform to political standards, and to establishing contexts in which caring for can be non-abusive”, (Curtin) therefore refusing to conform to patriarchal standards that encourage the mistreatment of animals for human consumption. By organizing this dinner party and explaining to my friends I created; for my friends, and myself a greater understanding of what being a “vegan” is. It’s not a fad or a bandwagon you should get on, its purpose has a deeper meaning that rests on feminism. I was surprised at how I was able to have a conversation about ecofeminism without preaching!   Reading Beth Godbee’s blogs highlighted the importance of what I was doing with the dinner party and my small personal change of eating like a vegan. I think the dinner party was a success in that my friends now see a connection between human and non-human animals and the oppression they share. Furthermore I was able to raise $150 for “Heart-Head-Hands”(there is also an option for monthly contributions) and although I have strayed somewhat from my vegan diet I have gained valuable knowledge to make better and more informed choices in the future and have saved some animals in the process.  That was my personal goal.

By making a small personal change I was able to educate other people about my cause. My personal decision to eat and cook vegan became political in the way I shared my experience and reason for my choice with others. Not only did I create awareness about vegetarian ecofeminism to my “dinner party” guests but also to my family, and co-workers who also observed my new eating habits (my family also participated in the 5-day vegan plan). I may not have converted anyone to veganism but I have planted a seed of ecofeminism in many of my friends and family, which is, in part what activism is about. I showed how ordinary people could contribute to doing something for the environment, and animals, even if it’s small. I think people were surprised that doing something like I did was considered activism. Which lead to a conversation about activism and then about feminism and so on. Like I said I might not have converted anyone to be a vegan but I feel I helped people understand the connection between meat and women and create awareness around the violence and mistreatment against non human animals so  they can make more informed choices. Whether your activism is big or small you have the ability to create change.

I have included the links to the recipe’s I used for the dinner party if you would like to view (or use) them. My favorites were the Creamy Mushroom Risotto and the Snickers Cheesecake!

Vegan Dinner Party Dishes

Spring Minestrone:

Hearty Spaghetti with Lentils and Marinara:

Creamy Mushroom Risotto:

Churro Banana Bites:

Vegan Snickers Cheesecake:



Curtin, Deane. “Contextual Moral Vegetarianism.” 8 February 2020 <>.

Annotated bibliography:

Godbee, Beth. Everyday Living for Justice. 31 March 2020. 6 April 2020 <>.

Beth Godbee is the founder and creator of “Heart-Head-Hands” website. Beth lives in Washington D.C. and is a educator, researcher, entrepreneur, and public writer. She also is a former professor at Marquette University. The website features a blog, online courses, coaching, and workshops all focused on feminist issues such as environmental justice, racial justice, gender and economic. Beth herself is a vegan and centers a blog around her choice to be vegan and her journey of commitment for justice.


It All Starts With a Plan

One of the major issues facing ecofeminist is our relationship to non-human animals and how we perceive them. Vegetarian ecofeminism is a theoretical view attached to sympathy of non-human animals. Millions of animals are killed, or worse unnecessarily everyday in the U.S. alone. These animals are rendered powerless to the hands of humans. Furthermore non-human animals are oppressed by the same patriarchal structures that oppress women. Greta Gaard confirms there is a “specific linkage between sexism and speciesism between the oppression of women and the oppression of animals” (Gaard). In that respect there is a connection between feminism and veganism and thus is an ecofeminist central issue. In order to raise awareness regarding this important aspect of ecofeminism I plan to enact a personal/political idea. In feminism, the personal is political.

My choice of activism will be to donate. I will support my cause by raising money for a charity related to ecofeminism, ideally one specific to my interest of vegetarian ecofeminism. My original plan was to host an entirely vegan dinner party and request my friends “donate” what they would normally pay to go to a restaurant to attend the dinner party. I would then donate that money to an organization that supports my cause. However, in lieu of the pandemic that we’re currently experiencing I have to get more creative and modify my charity dinner. Instead of having guests come to my home I have decided to prepare an all-vegan dinner and do “take-out” for the friends I invited. They have all agreed to still participate and accepted “take-out” as an alternative. In addition, to further expand my activist action I have decided to challenge myself to become a vegan for this period of 5 days (or longer). Although I’m currently a meat eater, to completely represent the change I want to see, I will have to “practice what I preach” to support my cause.

In order to organize the dinner party I would receive donations for I would first need to prepare a vegan menu. This is a challenge as I mentioned before I’m currently not a vegan and I’m not used to cooking like this for my family or myself. I looked up recipes for the “dinner party”. Here is what the menu will consist of:

First course

  • Mixed greens salad with garlic and lemon vinaigrette
  • Spring Minestrone

Main Course

  • Hearty Spaghetti with Lentils and Marinara Sauce
  • Creamy Mushroom Risotto


  • Churro Banana Bites
  • Vegan Snickers Cheesecake

I hope that my dinner will initiate conversation with my friends and family about why I choose to do this and give me the opportunity to discuss veganism as a ecofeminist perspective.  In addition, I also hope as a result of changing my eating habits others will recognize the possibility of contributing to making a change as well.    In other words I hope my eating choices can reinforce the message that small change can make a difference.


Gaard, Greta. “Ecofeminism on the Wing: Perspectives on Human-Animal Relations.” Women & Environments (2001): 19-22.

Activism and Ecofeminism

Activism and Ecofeminism

Protesters at Standing Rock

Ecofeminist believe that women and nature are both oppressed by patriarchal power structures. Activism rooted in Ecofeminism seeks to tackle the oppression brought forth by economic, political, and other patriarchal structures. All over the world women have suffered as a result of environmental degradation. Some women suffer as a direct result of depleted resources and some women suffer as a result of defending the resources they rely on For example, Native women in South Dakota have been sexually assaulted by non-native men as a result of oil booms where “man camps” have been established to house oil workers (Levin). Women at Standing Rock were fired at with rubber bullets, imprisoned, and harassed by local police for speaking out against the Keystone XL pipeline. Unfortunately President Trump restarted the Keystone XL approval process in 2017 after former President Barack Obama blocked construction in 2015 and the project will commence after the COVID-19 pandemic ends (Brady) despite their efforts. Other women are suffering from the environmental degradation happening as a result of political and governmental refusal to act on their behalf.

Bridge in Recife, Brazil

In Brazil for example women and the environment are in dire straits because of patriarchal structures that fail to recognize acknowledge consequences of capital gain. In the Metropolitan area of Recife you will find beautiful bridges dressed with colors of yellow, blue and red. Despite the structures seemingly beautiful appearance what’s beneath it reveals a devastating reality.   The river is filled with garbage in the slums. The pollution of the river infects the water source, food supply and health of all of the impoverished people that live in many of the slums of Recife’s north side. “Larissa Silva, a ten-year-old has chronic ringworm covering 80 percent of her body” and is a result of the pollution in this area of Brazil (Correa) an article from Vice reports. Its stories like these that remind us of ecofeminist struggles to create awareness of the oppression that women and the environment experience.

Activist that organized the Green Belt Movement in Africa and the Chipko Movement in India were motivated by the guiding principles of ecofeminist in order to protect the resources that not only help them thrive but also helped sustain them. In 1973 activist from the Chipko movement were successful in preventing the trees from felling for developers to build a sport goods company (edugreen). Greenbelt activist recognized the responsibility they had to till the fields, nurture crops, and harvest food meant that they would be the first to notice the environmental degradation that was going on; and they did. Despite kickback and brutal resistance from the government and local police Wangari Maathai successfully lead the movement to stop a skyscraper and statue from being built on one of Nairobi’s largest parks and the planting of millions of trees (Maathai).

Ivona Gebara on Feminism

Ivona Gebara takes a religious stance that the patriarchal values that encourage the oppression of women and the degradation of the environment stem from religion in Brazil. She argues that while feminist, ecologist, and ecofeminist are trying to figure out how to theorize, destruction of forest, rainforest, and other eco systems continues. Her version of ecofeminism that she calls an “eco of feminism” focuses less on theorizing and more on concrete solutions. Using Recife as an example she talks about making a difference there to the problem that most women don’t know how to help themselves and feel they are in “jail” as Gebara puts it. Her solution is to move beyond theology, “official theologies are cultural products of our hierarchal and masculine philosophies and ideologies. They can give life and strength for a while but they need to be renewed” (Gebara 98). With that she asserts that with new understandings applied to religious traditions a new fresher perspective can be born, a new utopia. She encourages us to put our individual theories and utopias together and create an ecological, social, and political order for the common good of women and the environment, one where patriarchal institutions don’t shape out lives. “The new understanding needs a critical analysis of what is going on in our world in order to clarify what could be a common utopia for us” (Gebara 100).  Her term “eco of feminism” seems to move beyond ecofeminism theory and usher in tactics of activism to support her utopian vision for justice of women and the environment.


Correa, Talita. The Brazilian Slum Children Who Are Literally Swimming in Garbage. 30 January 2014. 1 April 2020 <>.

edugreen. The Chipko Movement . <>.

Gebara, Ivona. “Ecofeminism: A Latin American Perspective .” Cross Currents 53.1 (2003): 93-103.

Levin, Sam. “At Standing Rock, women lead fight in face of Mace, arrests and strip searches.” The Guardian (2016).

Maathai, Wangari. The Green Belt Movement . 4 May 2000. 1 April 2020 <>.

Annotated Bibliography:

Brady, Jeff. Builder Of Controversial Keystone XL Pipeline Says It’s Moving Forward. 31 March 2020. 1 April 2020 <>.

In this article legislation by President Donald Trump reinstates the Keystone XL oil pipeline project. Despite its past former President Barack Obamas decision to stop the project construction is expected to resume. The article touches on the environmental concerns such as greenhouse gas effects and highlighted the economic advantages such as jobs and revenue to the restart of the project. Also the article discusses the COVID-19 pandemic that is now the only thing standing in the way of construction of the 1,210-mile pipeline.

Intersectionality and EcoFeminism

Intersectionality and Ecofeminism

Intersectionality in Feminism is an approach that encompasses all oppressions and the fact they are all interconnected. Kimberle’ Crenshaw first defined it  as a “metaphorical and conceptual tool used to highlight the inability of a single-axis framework to capture the experiences of black women” (Kings). Intersectionality dissects the interconnectedness of race, class, gender, disability, sexuality, caste, religion, age, etc. in relation to discrimination, oppression, and women. “People experience multiple aspects of identity simultaneously and the meanings of different aspects of identity are shaped by one another” (Kang, Lessard and Heston). Crenshaw developed this term in 1989. It was a way for black women to express how they were discriminated against by race and gender and further by class, and economic status. Crenshaw and Patricia Hill assert that environmental movements don’t take black women struggles into account and therefore, “there is no movement that truly addresses the intersectional oppression black women face from sexism and environmental racism” (Cain). The theory of intersectionality is specific but flexible and can be used in a variety of ways when discussing oppression in feminism.

Ecofeminist’s argue that they have been applying the concepts of intersectionality before 1989.

Ecofeminism says, “A healthy, balanced ecosystem, including human and nonhuman inhabitants, must maintain diversity” (Bookchin), diversity that encompasses all living things. Ecofeminism surfaced in the 1970’s and 1980’s and claims to have had an understanding of intersectionality before the term was coined.  Similar to the principles of intersectionality, ecofeminist’s strive to demonstrate how the lives of humans are interconnected in the environment, specifically women in. Further, “classism, sexism, heterosexism, naturism, and speciesism are all intertwined” (Hobgood-Oster). For example, Ynestra King contests that nature and culture are separate thus making an intersectional connection to ecofeminism. Similarly ecofeminist principles suggest an intersectional approach believing, “life is an interconnected, web not a hierarchy” (Bookchin). Ecofeminist principles support diversity and oppose domination and violence. Most central to ecofeminism is that women and nature are oppressed by patriarchal structures. Ecofeminist show the connections between all forms of domination, including the domination of nonhuman nature (Bookchin).

Black Women and Ecofeminism

Despite ecofeminism’s inclusion of an intersectional approach black feminist critique that ecofeminist principles fail to recognize the struggles of black women and their environmental concerns.  In “Women of Color, Environmental Justice and Ecofeminism”, Dorceta Taylor compares how the mainstream environmental movement and the ecofeminist movement focus primarily on the middle class and white women rather than include the black community (Cain).  Although ecofeminist seek to eradicate the patriarchal and economic forms of oppression that degrade women and the environment Taylor says black women of degraded communities are “the waste products of capitalist production and excessive consumption” (Cain). This argument would suggest that ecofeminism is not intersectional its approach.

However, the interconnected web of ecofeminism connects women and the environment as well as race, class, sexuality, religion, disability, species and age.  Martin Luther King Junior said, “No one is free until we are all free.” This quote demonstrates that black people or white people aren’t free until the other is free. According to Kings, “Intersectional ecofeminism builds upon this foundation by further postulating that the ‘freedom’ of humanity is not only reliant on the freedom of nature and women, but it is also reliant on the achievement of liberation for all of those at intersecting points on along these fault lines” (Kings). Ecofeminism’s interconnected web has been looking at the connection of women and the environment in an intersectional way and has evolved to include more ways we can look at ecology and feminism in relation to different degrees of oppression and will continue to evolve. To preserve diversity ecofeminist must look at all participants in an intersectional way. Although intersectionality may not offer a complete solution to issues of difference it can help us to explore ways that different forms of oppression impact those who would otherwise be ignored.


Bookchin, Murray. The Ecology of Feminsm and the Feminism of Ecology. 27 Oct 2019. 26 March 2020 <>.

Cain, Cacldia. “The Necessity of Balck Women’s Standpoint and Intersectionality in Environmental Movements .” Black Feminist Thought 2016 (2016).

Hobgood-Oster, Laura. “Ecofeminism: Historic and International Evolution.” 31 January 2020 <–christianity/Hobgood-Oster–Ecofeminism-International%20Evolution.pdf>.

Kings, A.E. “Intersectionality and the Changing Face of Ecofeminism.” Ethics and the Environment 22.1 (2017).


Annotated Bibliography

Kang, Miliann, et al. Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies . Amherst: University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries, 2017.

The section of this book on Intersectionality is part of a larger category of gender studies titled, “Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies”. This section details the concept of intersectional analysis. The problem that can be run into is when issues that surround feminism stop at gender. Intersectionality is a theory that can further explore the interconnected issues that apply to feminism. The book on a whole explores other issues that impact feminism such as binary systems, institutions, culture, work-family policy, economy and social movements.

Women Can Do More for our Environment-If We Let Them

What is the Connection Between Women, Government and the Environment?

According to research having a women in power yields better results for the environment and ecosystem.  Why is this you ask?  The theory is that women are more concerned with environmental issues (1) because they have more pro-environmental values (2) they are more risk averse (3) are more likely to participate in social movements (4) typically suffer disproportionately from environmental degradation (5) and finally sexism and environmental degradation can be a mutually reinforcing process (NorGaard and York 519).  Kari NorGaard and Richard York conducted research to prove this theory.  Based on findings from two countries Norway and Singapore, the conclusion they came to, was that societies with more female representation in government were more likely to have better environmental policies and subsequently healthier environments.  In other words societies that value gender equality are more likely to protect the environment.  So why are women more concerned with environmental issues than men?  Norgaard and York suggest this is because women have been socialized to be family nurturers and caregivers (NorGaard and York 508). Therefore women are more likely to view caring for and nurturing the environment as a priority.

Conventionally men run our government and subsequently influence our laws and policies almost predominantly.

Due to capitalism and patriarchal ideals men have dominated law decisions and policymaking.  Therefore, the contributions of women are seen as invisible in a capitalistic society because any work that does not produce a profit or capital is viewed as non-productive. Ecofeminist argue that women and nature have been dominated by these factors described as ”logic of domination” where women are oppressed and nature is exploited (NorGaard and York 509).  Ecofeminist assert that class and race as well as gender intersect and are built into the social system affecting gender equality and state environmentalism.  Norgaard and York found that gender equality positively impacts state environmentalism however; states that appear to be environmentally responsible are actually the greatest contributors to environmental degradation most likely due to capitalistic and modernized society.

In order for women to make a difference in influencing state policy they would need to make up 30% of government leaders.

Gro Harlem Bruntland

Many countries do not meet those requirements including ours. During the time of the study conducted by Norgaard and York, Norway had one of the highest percentages of women in government in the world at 36.4% in sharp contrast to women in Singapore who made up only 4.3% (NorGaard and York 515).  The major factor that contributed to these numbers was gender. Norway’s key political leader at the time was a woman, Gro Harlem Bruntland who valued issues such as women’s rights, human health, children, the environment, and future generations. In contrast Singapore had an overall lack of interest in gender equality and state environmentalism.  This is due in part to women’s limited participation in government policy making and the lack of environmental programs.  The results of Norgaard and York’s analysis support ecofeminist theory that gender equality specifically in government positively influences state environmentalism.

Norgaard and York discuss that women are more concerned than men with environmental issues for many reasons including their tendency to be family nurturers and caregivers. An example that demonstrates Norgaard and York’s theory comes from the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection.  The Massachusetts DEP leaders consist of primarily males including the commissioner Martin Suuberg.  Of the seven members that make up the political leaders of the DEP only one of them are women.  This directly correlates with Norgaard and York’s analysis that there are more men identified as political leaders and this case directly impacting environmental decisions. The possible result is men more than women will influence the policies implemented by the Massachusetts DEP.  ( Interestingly enough when looking at how Massachusetts compares with other states when it comes to greenhouse gas emissions, “Massachusetts is starting to fall behind other states which have passed aggressive carbon emissions standards” (LeBlanc).

Below is a quote and statistic from the Pew Research Center that shows Norgaard and York’s general thesis:

“There are areas where the public sees female leaders as having an advantage. In both business and politics, majorities say women are better than men when it comes to being compassionate and empathetic, and substantial shares say women are better at working out compromises and standing up for what they believe in. Similarly, more adults say female political leaders do a better job of serving as role models for children (41%) and maintaining a tone of civility and respect (34%) than say the same about men


This statistic reiterates the results of analysis NorGaard and York conducted that women have a tendency to be more compassionate than men because of their traditional role of being caretakers and nurturers therefore paying more attention to issues such as environmentalism.


LeBlanc, Steve. Massachusetts Senate approves ‘net zero’ environmental bills. 30 January 2020. 18 March 2020 <>.

Norgaard, Kari and Richard York. “Gender Equality and State Environmentalism.” Gender and Society August 2005: 506-522.

Annotated Bibliography: In this article Steve LeBlanc reports what Massachusetts is lacking in environmental laws and policies and what bills the senate can pass to rectify Massachusetts failure to comply with environmental laws . The article explains that several bills are waiting to be passed by congress with the goal to for a statewide “net zero” emissions greenhouse gas by the year 2050.

Abortion, Feminism and the Environment


The Controversy Surrounding Abortion

There are many views on whether abortion is acceptable or not. Many of the arguments are controversial and involve overlapping issues such as ethics, morals, feminism, class and environmental concerns. I myself have hard time agreeing with the choice of abortion but nonetheless do agree that awareness of all arguments of the issue is essential toward understanding all points of view. It is worth exploring each person’s own ethical and moral sense of how they feel about abortion whether it be an extreme conservative view, extreme liberal view, or a more moderate view (Gordon). Gordon explores the moral and legal aspects of abortion in his text.

Focusing on moral and ethical debates Gordon looks at “personhood “ as a means to determine whether a fetus is a human person and if so does it have the legal right to live? I tend to look at this from the “modified standard argument” that the fetus is a human life form rather than from a “standard argument” that addresses the fetus as a human being. It makes more sense to me that a fetus is human life form rather than a human being because it is a form of life. It should be considered life. Women have the amazing ability to give life.


Intertwined in the text are the different situational circumstances involved in determining if a fetus’s life should be determined by human rights or by a women’s choice. Each group see’s a different morally significant break in the rationalization of the choice to have an abortion. In other words when is it appropriate to morally have an abortion? For example a liberal view would suggest there is a morally significant break at birth. “This means that it is morally permitted to have an abortion before birth and morally prohibited to kill the offspring after birth.” (Gordon). From a moderate viewpoint the ability to suffer is the parameter to determine a morally significant break, which is at about six months. Extreme conservatives believe that the fetus is a person and prohibit abortion justifiable by the assumption that abortion kills human beings. Gordon argues that a fetus is not a person and lacks personhood because it lacks rationality and self-consciousness and therefore lacks “quasi rights” (Gordon). Further explaining, “The fetus is by virtue of his genetic code a human life form but this does not mean that this would be sufficient to grant it legal and moral rights” (Gordon).

Gordon also highlights pregnant women’s right to self-determination, privacy, the right to physical integrity, and the right to live as possible justifications of the choice to abortion. In addition he address’s circumstances from a feminist point of view such as rape, endangerment of the women’s life, serious mentally or physically disabled fetus, and financial and social response that are out of the mothers control and further intrude on her rights as a women. Also important to note in Gordon’s text is the discussion of law and abortion. Does good policy rest on moderate views as he suggests? Or should it be more to the liberal or extreme side? Gordon agrees with Gert who states, “No one thinks that what the law decides about abortion settles the moral issue” (Gordon).

Are you Pro-choice or Pro-forced birth?

In line with Gordon’s evaluation of women’s rights Jessica Valenti argues that abortion is about women’s right to equality. Further expanding the right of women to live, have integrity, and be allowed privacy Valenti references Kathy Pollitt’s book, “Pro: Reclaiming Abortion Rights” stating that women should indeed have the choice to have an abortion in order to make it possible for them to pursue a career and have the same rights as men. We should have the same rights as men; and men should have the same rights as women.  Comparing ourselves to men  has a tendency to divide us rather than make us equal.  Men and women have different qualities that make them unique and that’s what I think should be the focus. A main component of feminism is advocating for equality so how can we be equal if we; men and women are constantly divided by what they can and cannot do? To be clear, Im not suggesting women are equal to men in our society. Valenti further creates inequality by dividing women into “pro-choice groups” and “pro-forced birth” (Valenti) groups playing each against each other further creating animosity instead of sisterhood among women. She makes her argument against pro choicers clear when she says, “The pro-choice movement needs to put the opposition on its heels, and make what some in the “pro-forced birth” movement say what they’re really thinking: that it’s more important for women be mothers than go to college; that the ability to support existing children, to have a job that pays well or to pursue a career path we love are inconsequential realities compared to embracing our “natural” role as perpetually pregnant; that a woman’s ability to incubate a fetus trumps any other contribution to society that she could possibly make” (Valenti).  I do not think women should have to choose between education and a career or motherhood but instead think we should come together to change out-dated policies on a government level that make it difficult to do so and find solutions and create work-family policies to improve a mother’s ability to have both if they choose to. Some women are happy being mothers, some want a career and, some want both. My point is we should work together to achieve equality for men and women (men also face inequality in some instances).

Ecofeminist Perspective on Abortion 

Ronnie Zoe Hawkins presents an ecofeminist perspective on abortion provides the some links between environmental problems, poverty and population growth. Hawkins suggests that we need to have some form of “human population limitation” (Hawkins 691) in order to escape environmental degradation. Hawkins maintains a stance that, “At the present time, recognition of our connectedness with all other life on the planet reinforces the need for abortion” (Hawkins 693). I don’t disagree that there is an issue with population control but also I don’t think this is the sole issue. It is everyone’s responsibility (not just women’s) to ensure a healthy environment.   There are issues contributing to environmental degradation on the private sector such as unregulated corporation waste practices and violations of environmental laws that are already in place that should be taken into account. For example P&G’s “climate commitment” only applies to what are known corporate greenhouse gas accounting as scope I and 2 emissions (Axeirod) but, “But they’re only a fraction of the true impact of P&G’s operations” (Axeirod). See the website for further information on greenhouse gas emission cover-ups.


Works Cited


Axeirod, Joshua. 26 February 2019. 5 March 2020 <>.

Gordon, John-Stewart. Abortion. 5 March 2020 <>.

Hawkins, Ronnie Zoe. “Reproductive Choices: The Ecological Dimension.” Contradictions: Controversies in Feminist Social Ethics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993. 690-693.


Valenti, Jessica. “Abortion isn’t about the right to privacy. It’s about the right to equality.” The Guardian (2014).


Annotated Source: Axeirod, Joshua.

Author Joshua Axelord explores the growing environmental concerns attached to the deliberate dishonesty of big corporations. He details how corporations like P&G use unethical tactics to portray they are not contributing as much greenhouses gases, but they actually are by not including all the information to the public. He agrues there needs to be government involvement that will hold big corporations accountable and lessen their power in todays world with policy change.

Views from Carol J. Adams: Women- Nature Association

What is Anthropornography?

What is Anthropornography? This term coined by Carol J. Adams will shed some light how animals and non-human animals are related to each other. Adams explores how the advertising industry has fooled us into seeing animals as nothing but consumable objects rather than living beings objectified and violated similar to the ways women are objectified by men. She also makes the connection to patriarchy and food saying that “women are animalized and animals are sexualized and feminized” (Adams 13) therefore connecting males and manliness to being the consumer of meat. She further details that meat eating is associated with masculinity and subsequently being male means eating meat. In the list of who is a consumer and who is the consumed she identifies white males as the consumer. White-males being the most privileged in our culture is the reasoning behind her assertion. Females and animals are the consumed as their privilege in society is much less. In this way anthropornography like pornography is advantaged based on how privilege is formed.

Animal consumption is made to look sexy as a way to rationalize the torture, degradation, and suffering they face to satisfy consumers. Therefore the advertisements sexualization of animals makes it seem okay to consume animals because like women they are sexualized and made to look like objects, not living beings. Adams explains this phenomenon by saying, “Animalizing women and feminizing animals helps in this process because it renders women and dead animals used as flesh as commodities” (Adams 15). Lisa Kemmerer who shares similar views to Adams points out, “‘everyone can enjoy the degradation of women without being honest about it’. These images are part of the structure of our culture, so we fail to notice that women are also being exploited: we fail to notice that ‘consumable’ animals are invariably portrayed as feminine, as sexual – available to men, just like female human beings” (Kemmerer). Anthropornography can be then seen as, “misery made sexy” (Adams 15).

Because women become symbolically female and fall into the category of consumable females they are seen as meat… this concept reiterates what we see in the images from Adams slide show of food advertisements. Looking at one of the images we can see how this chicken has been sexualized as a female, ready for consumption.

The advertisement makes the chicken look promiscuous like it wants to be eaten; to be consumed by a male. A second image advertises an ice cream company not only picturing a cow’s exaggerated rear end to look large and volumptuous but with the wording saying, “dairy air” further focusing on the female cows backside making the dairy product of the cow appear sexy therefore consumable. Here, a female’s body parts are represented by a female cow. “If animals are burdened by gender, by gender associations, by the oppression that is gender, then clearly they cant be liberated through representations that demean women” (Adams 20). Clearly the image of the cow being compared to a women is demeaning to women but as Adams argues is inviting to men. Finally a third image pictures a famous black male holding onto a black females leg like he is an animal ready to devour his meal. In the forefront is a chicken and a beer represented as female. Not only are black women seen as promiscuous but they are also depicted as being wild and needing to be tamed. The wild nature of the picture sends the message that the male is taming his meal. Adams see’s this as the overlapping of “absent referents” (Adams). The overlapping absent referents here are white males and animals. Kemmerer describes the goal of these advertisements targeted at the white male as “Nonhuman animals are whoring for you. Nonhumans want you, too” (Kemmerer). Another image I came across is that goes along the same lines of Adams’ theory that animals are sexualized. In this advertisement of lobster a women’s behind is shown with the words “Lobster, all the meat is in the tail.” Just as females are used as objectifaction for males an animal is depicted in this advertisement as also raw material for consumption of humans.

I think Adams has some very interesting insight when it comes to how the meat industry advertises meat that is obviously targeting the white male. As Adams states everything about the advertisement is intentional. We have become unaware of the messages behind these advertisements and desensitized to the patriarchal implications of the meat industry. For instance, “Female cows, chickens, pigs and other species, are routinely exploited due to their reproductive abilities” (Pevreall). This and the other concepts I discussed are some of the situations that have been forgotten on our quest to satisfy our privilege.


Adams, Carol J. “The Politics of Carol J. Adams.” Antennae. Annie Potts. Ed. Glovanni Alol. 2009. 12-24.

Kemmerer, Lisa. “The Pornography of Meat By Carol Adams.” Philosophy Now (2006).

Pevreall, Katie. “Sociaology Professor Deems Not Eating Meat A Feminist Act.” Live Kindly, 2017.


Annotated Bibliography:

This short article written by Katie Pevreall explains how a sociology professor Anne DeLassio-Parson makes the connection between eating meat and patriarchy. In the article she asserts that not eating meat can affect gender hierarchy and binaries in a variety of positive ways. She addresses the intersectional ways that black women are affected by their decision to be vegan and how that decision has become an act of social justice. Finally DeLassio touches upon the exploitation of animal’s particularly female animals, because of their reproductive capabilities.

Vegitarian Ecofeminism


The Image of Meat on a Cutting Board

I feel the reason this particular image was chosen for this section is due to the “masculine” qualities the image insinuates. In the article “Meat Heads” the author discusses that the consumption of meat for some men tends to make them feel more masculine. He suggests that gendered effects of food choice have dictated this for decades. For example, “eat a steak, feel more like a man” (Eisenberg) is the proposed gender bias that men eat meat and women eat salads. The image chosen for this section, highlights that eating meat represents the male gender and being masculine means you eat meat. A male looking doughboy (perceived as male on TV commercials) lays claim to the meat by placing his foot on the cutting board with a steak knife in hand and another knife already inserted in the meat suggesting the meat is something he has laid claim to and will eventually consume. So there are several masculine traits are depicted in this image that represents eating meat is a masculine trait.

More on Gendered Foods

Gendered food is actually a real thing!   they exist I argue because of a gender divided society ruled by gender norma and expectations.  Another example of gendered foods is as mentioned above, that women (should) eat salads. Women in society are considered to be kind and gentle, more socially and ethically aware and subsequently make more emotional choices when eating avoiding “barbaric” animal eating habits. Although not all women, myself included always chose a salad when presented with the option. Another food that is gendered is in my opinion fruit. It doesn’t seem masculine to eat fruit. I think fruit is considered to be more feminine because it is tender, fragile, and vulnerable; many qualities a women is associated with. When it come to eating habits, men and women have different perceptions on etiquette. Women are supposed to be proper. Using manners, keeping a clean eating area, and chewing and eating slowly, etc. Men have more room for eating with less etiquette rooting back to caveman times. The man first of all eats first and as much as he likes. Besides that masculine eating can include eating quickly, consuming large bites of food and eating loudly. It is more acceptable to see a man eating this way than seeing a female eating this way because of societies perceived view of gender.

An Ecofeminist View of Our Relationship to Non-Human Animals

The way we see non-human animals is largely based on the patriarchal systems that are in place. As a food source animals are oppressed by humans and subjected to mistreatment and exploitation similarly to women in a patriarchal society.

Cow milking facility and mechanized milking equipment in the milking hall

I feel ecofeminism seeks to impose an ethic of care into the abuse of animals as a food source. Deane Curtin argues, “the case of killing animals for human consumption where there is a choice, this practice inflicts pain that is completely unnecessary and avoidable” (Curtin).  In addition to viewing non-human animals as a food source ecofeminist Greta Gaard argues that humans see non-human animals as inferior and as another form of oppression saying, “to be a pet is to have all of one’s life decisions controlled by someone else” (Gaard 21) underlining the relationship to non-human animals as inferior to humans. Both ecofeminist draw on the relationship we have with non-human animals as one that correlates with the oppression of women. Curtin mentions the choice to be vegan (free from not only meat but also free from consuming dairy and eggs) supports the decision not to exploit females reproductive systems. Gaard links sexism and speciesism giving the example of women being called derogatory terms that are related to animals such as “bitch”, “pussy”, “old bat”, and “cow brain” relating animals to be governed by patriarchy in the same way. Gaard also maintains that the same system of oppression, “these multiple systems-racism, classism, sexism, speciesism” (Gaard 20) govern non-human animals as well as humans.


Curtin, Deane. “Contextual Moral Vegetarianism.” 8 February 2020 <>.


Eisenberg, Zoe. “Meat Heads: New Study Focuses on How Meat Consumption Alters Men’s Self-Percieved Levels of Masculinity.” 13 January 2017. Huff Post. 8 February 2020 <>.


Gaard, Greta. “Ecofeminism on the Wing: Perspectives on Human-Animal Relations.” Women & Environments (2001): 19-22.


Annotated Bibliography: Greta Gaard draws on the reasons the relationships we have with non-human animals can be seen as oppressive. She gives an eco feminist view of our relationship with the animals we eat and the relationship with our pets. Gaard argues that just as we oppress humans the oppression animals face id worsened by the patriarchal systems that govern animals as powerless at the hands of humans.

Understanding Place

As a child I grew up in a small rural town. Our house was on a quiet street and we had woods all around us. We often saw turkeys, deer and other small animals in our backyard. Our neighbors (none of which we could see) had a grapevine next to their house and my brother and I would sneak over to steal some of the fresh grapes in late summer and spit out the seeds. I remember taking a couple juice boxes, granola bars, and my backpack and going for “hikes” in the woods to explore. I would be gone for hours walking and looking at the ferns tree’s, and lady slipper’s remembering not to pick them because my mother told me they were endangered. I listened to the silence interrupted only by birds. There were no sounds of cars or trucks just quiet nature. It was one of my favorite things to do on the weekends. This photo reminds me of my walks through the woods when I was a child.


Bedrock of Democracy

Terry Tempest Williams discusses the hope of “bedrock of democracy “. Through stories of place and a relationship with nature people can remember what it means to be human, to remember where they came from. Williams argues that if we lose sight of our connection to nature over politics and possession of land we will lose a sense of ourselves, and humanity itself.

“As the world becomes more crowded ad corroded by consumption and capitalism, this landscape of minimalism will take on greater significance, reminding us through its blood red grandeur just how essential wild country is to our psychology…” (Williams 6)

Thinking of the place that I identified above as part of my history I realize that I would lose a piece of me, a piece of my childhood, if the lack of respect for the environment and nature continues. This was a place I could find peace and solace and where I could feel connected to a source of life. Something that was bigger than everything else in my life. It allowed me to put things in perspective.

So when I think of Williams “bedrock of democracy” I feel this place from my childhood supports his vision of a world where we allow our selves to reconnect with nature in order to reassess what is important to us and good for humanity. Williams encourages us to “strengthen our association with the wild” so we can engage in a more thoughtful and wholesome approach to a life lived not through greed and shortsightedness but by “standing our ground in the places we love, together” (Williams 19) in order to protect them.  My childhood memories remind me of what is like to feel connected to something greater than myself.

I was able to experience something pure, and untouched by this industrialized world free from greed and corruption.   These are the things I think Williams is referring to when he mentions a “moral line of behavior” (Williams 19) he is referring to those central and internal feelings we have when we connect with nature. A sense of innocence and sense of “self” that gives us a renewed sense of what it means to live as one with nature.

People Need Wild Places

Barbara Kingsolver asserts that, “People need wild places” (Kingsolver) and I tend to agree with her. She has had the privilege of having a childhood like mine where she had a place to enjoy the quietness and pureness of nature, a place to self-reflect. However not all of us have had that privilege. I don’t think it makes anyone better than the other but I do think it’s important to have the opportunity to connect with nature. Understanding that land cannot be used for greedy purpose, or owned, understanding that the land belongs to all of us is something that can be taught but it’s our experiences of place that remind us of that.



Kingsolver, Barbara. “PBS.” NOW. 6 February 2020 <>.

annotated: Kingsolver’s excerpt details her experiences of her childhood cabin where she has an intimate relationship to the nature around her. The log cabin, inherited by her husband’s family located in The Walker Mountain of Southern Appalachia is home to her in the summer months. Kingsolver is a writer who has become reliant on surrounding herself wit the scenery of the lag cabin home and has found that this place reminds her of how important it is to be connected to nature. How important the land is to people that rely on it and find comfort in the land and it’s peace and quiet. She notes that, “an ill-placed dam, well, ranch, or subdivision could permanently end the existence of their (the willow fly catchers and apache trout) kind. She goes on to stress the importance of respecting the earth and reminds that our food, oxygen, and sources of pleasure all come from the earth.

Williams, Terry Tempest. “Homework.” Williams, Terry Tempest. Red. n.d. 3-19.

Different perspectives on Eco Feminism

Women in the global South are affected by environmental degradation in a variety of ways. Women in the Global South are disproportionately affected by not having access to clean water. Without clean water women in low-income countries face sanitization and hygiene issues that complicate menstruation, pregnancy and childrearing. Having clean water is important and directly affects women in these areas. Further affecting women is the fact that women are responsible for collecting clean water for their household. This is time consuming and can have related consequences such as missed time for education and vulnerability for abuse and attack to use a toilet. Eco feminist are striving to alter this sense of reality and say, “Embedding gender equity into policy at all levels will be crucial to achieving water and sanitation for all” (

In addition to the shortage of clean water women in the Global South are affected by exploitation of resources and the manipulation from the Global North that control those resources and ultimately make farmers dependent on them for agricultural necessities. Also many women of the Global South are dependent on the land for food, water and shelter therefore ecological destruction is a type of oppression as a result of economic greed. Vandana Shiva is a physicist and activist who has made groundbreaking progress on some of the issues that affect women-nature connections and puts it this way, “…people who are dependent on natural resources, on biodiversity, on the land, the forests, the water. Nature is their means of production” (Shiva). Bina Agarwal, also an eco feminist asserts that gender-class effects of environmental degradation are caused by a shift of natural resources to patriarchal systems like the state. Because women (and men) rely so heavily on the environment for healthy nourishment, clothing, shelter and fuel, the degradation of the environment is a direct patriarchal assault on women and the ecosystem.

In contrast to eco feminist like Hobgood-Oster and Warren who have more of a focus on dualistic hierarchies and historical and cultural factors such as Warren’s women-nature connection of “Symbolic Connections” Agarwal seems to focus on environmental degradation and its subsequent effects on women. Both seem to tie in the patriarchal entities that govern the oppression of both women and environment. Further she focuses on problems with the distribution of property, power, and knowledge, how that relates to the environment and eventually how it affects gender. For example, she mentions several terms in relation to resource management in India:

  • Forms of Environmental Degradation
  • The Process of Statization
  • Process of Privatization
  • The Erosion of Community Resource Management Systems
  • Population Growth
  • Choices of Agricultural Technology and Erosion of Local Knowledge Systems

These terms identify Patriarchal systems in which resources are either stolen or damaged and she notes that poor households and women are harmfully more affected. I enjoyed Agarwal’s perspective because of the diversity of her focus. Her Global South perspective is refreshing and should make us mindful that eco feminism just like feminism is intersectional and must be viewed in every context. Not just from our own geographic location but awareness of other countries and cultures can help us better understand the actions and changes that eco feminist can use to eradicate patriarchal structures that support the oppression of women and nature.